A vortex is circular flow of a liquid, and is caused by a velocity gradient.
There are 2 types of vortices in fluid mechanics namely free and forced vortices .
The vortex formation apparatus allows visualizing and investigating both types.
For free vortex formation water is supplied and introduced radially into the transparent tank of the apparatus.
An impeller in addition to water being supplied and introduced tangentially into the transparent tank is used in forced vortex formation.
The transparent tank has an open drain that could accommodate 4 different drain inserts of different diameters.
Point gauges are incorporated for investigating vortex profile in both cases.
The vortex formation apparatus is design for mounting in top of the fluid mechanics bench, and water to be supplied from it.
Additionally flow rate could be measured using the fluid mechanics bench.