##### (EC102)

Introduction to digital logic cards Code: (EC102.01)

• Digital Logic I
• Understanding the practical definition of the logical “1” & the logical “0”.
• Implementing AND gate and OR gate using switches (Switch logic)
• Discovering how the transistor acts as an inverter in digital logic.
• Using practical Digital Logic ICs to perform the Digital Logic functions of 2-input AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR & NOT gates verifying the truth table of each function.
• Differentiating between CMOS Logic and TTL Logic.
Construct simple combinational circuits, extracting their Boolean functions, simplifying these circuits using Boolean algebra and testing the simplified circuits to verify their equivalence.
• Digital Logic I I
• Using 3-variables and 4-variable logic gates & verifying the truth table of each logic gate.
• Implementing combinational circuits featuring 3-variable and 4-variable gates.
• Learning how to perform K-maps for simplifying digital logic circuits and practical verification that the k-map outputs match the original circuits.
• Implement real-life applications using digital logic circuits

Combinational Circuits Code: (EC102.02)

• Combinational Circuits I
• Constructing the most versatile digital logic combinational circuits such as full adders, half adders, and 4-bit binary adders.
• Discovering the 4-Bit magnitude comparator, verifying its truth table and determining its applications.
• Experimenting the multiplexers, de-multiplexers and their use cases.
• Examining the tri-state buffer, the decoder and understanding their applications.
• Combinational Circuits I I
• Experimenting the Encoder circuit and understanding its applications.
• Discovering the binary half & full subtractor circuits.
• Constructing a circuit with 7-segments and BCD decoder to display the numbers from 0 to 9.
• Understanding the Schmitt trigger inverter and the concept of hysterysis.
• Experimenting the 10:4 Encoder and learning about it's applications.
• Discovering the Parity Generation and detection circuits and their role in error detection.
• Combinational Circuits I I I
• Introducing the student to the basic structure and operation of Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)
• Experimenting each block inside the 4-bit ALU and verifying it’s functions including
• logical & arithmetic operation.

Sequential Circuits Code: (EC102.03)

• Sequential Circuits cards I
• Experimenting the basic memory elements such as the SR Latch and the Gated SR Latch.
• Understanding the construction of their circuits, principle of operation, and verifying each of their truth tables practically.
• Learning about other types of sequential elements such as the D-latches and the D-flip flops
• Discovering the different clock-triggering events of each sequential element.
• Sequential Circuits cards I I
• Experimenting the positive-triggered D-flip flop, understanding it’s construction and operation.
• Discovering can a D flip-flop be used to construct a JK Flip flop.
Understanding how to build a T Flip flop using a D flip flop or a JK flip flop.
• Sequential Circuits cards I I I
• Experimenting the series and parallel registers and how are they used to read and write digital bits.
• Understanding the construction of a 4-bit ripple counter and displaying its output waveforms on the oscilloscope.
• Sequential Circuits cards IV
• Experimenting Decade counters implemented using chain of JK-Flip flops & AND gates.
• Exploring the Universal Shift register & its construction (Multiplexers & S-R Flip-flops).
• Discovering the Universal shift register’s various functions including
• Shift Left
• Shift Right
• Parallel & Serial Outputs
• Latching Data
• Memory Card
• Learning about the construction of the basic memory cell (binary cell).
• Implementing two different circuits for the 1 bit memory cell using combinational logic gates in addition to SR Latch or D-flip flop and understanding how to write & read from each memory cell.
• Constructing a 4X4 Random Access Memory (RAM) using a 2X4 Decoder and 16 Binary cells.

Microcontroller Circuits Card Code: (EC102.04)

• Understanding the architecture of PIC Microcontrollers.
• Learning how to program PIC MCU.
• Experimenting the GPIOs and using them to control LEDs.
• Constructing circuit for 8X8 dot matrix , Dot matrix driving & control using MCU.
• Learning about the different communication protocols for communicating with the MCU such as SPI , I2C and UART.
• Experimenting the ADC channels of the MCU and interfacing these Channels with sensors and potentiometer.
• Understanding the operation of the PWM channels of the MCU.
• Interfacing the card with multiple modules and programming the MCU for each module.

Digital Conversion Cards Code: (EC102.05)

• Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
• Experimenting the Flash ADC & the SAR ADC operation to convert analog signal into a digital signal.
• Identifying the main characteristics of the ADC such as the reference voltage , the resolution and the bandwidth.
• Constructing a Flash ADC and determinig it's differences from the SAR ADC.
• Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
• Exploring the principles of digital-to-analog conversion through hands-on experiments with a Binary Weighted DAC. Starting with basic binary input configurations, students can observe the corresponding analog output voltages and understand the impact of changing individual bit values.
• Constructing and manipulating R2R Laddar DAC using resistor networks to convert binary inputs into analog voltages.
• Providing a practical understanding of how a String DAC operates and how changes in resistor values impact the analog signal.
• Digital Logic Design Experimental Cards (EC102)
• Hard copy user manual
• Card holder (MMS103) With Advanced Computer Interface Base Unit with Built-in Power Supply (MMS100)
• Card holder (MMS103) With Computer Interface Base Unit with Built-in Power Supply (MMS101)
• Bench Power Supply Unit (MMS102) (Customer to provide oscilloscope, function generator, multimeter)

The Digital logic cards package consists of a special set of cards designed to work with the main unit. it is an ideal tool for learning the basics of digital logic circuits, properties & parameters of digital circuits. it employs experiments to introduce Boolean algebra using simple logic circuits. Flip flops, sequential circuits, and a variety of more advanced applications that use them are all presented. The package familiarizes students with the principles, constraints, characteristics, and basic circuits of various digital components and how to employ them in practical circuits. Laboratory investigations help to enhance knowledge of measurement instruments, especially the logic analyzer.

• Familiarize the student with the fundamentals of the modern digital hardware systems that are used in most digital electronics.
• Introduce the student to the basic digital logic gates & building blocks.
• Design & implement digital logic circuits for versatile functions starting from the simple 1-gate circuits to the more challenging circuits in a step-by-step sequence.
• Gain the ability to classify different circuits based on their structure into combinational or sequential, Synchronous or Asynchronous.
• Reinforce theory and techniques taught in the classroom through experiments and projects in the laboratory.
• Mastering Digital logic circuit reduction techniques and verifying the equivalence of the reduced circuit practically.
• Be able to design and analyze combinational and sequential logic circuits

Introduction to digital logic cards Card: (EC102.01)

• The experimental cards introduce the students to the main concept of logic gates. also Comprise a set of logic gates (NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, EXOR, EXNOR) in its forms: 2-inputs, 3-inputs, and 4-inputs.
Introduction to digital logic cards include: Digital Logic I, Digital Logic II.

Combinational Circuits cards Card: (EC102.02)

• The experimental cards contain various combinational circuits such as adders, subtracters, multiplexers, demultiplexers, magnitude comparators, decoders, and encoders.
• Constructing the most versatile digital logic combinational circuits such as full adders, half adders, and 4-bit binary adders.
• Combinational Circuits include: Combinational Circuits I, Combinational Circuits II, Combinational Circuits III

Sequential Circuits cards Card: (EC102.03)

• The Sequential Circuits experimental cards contain various sequential blocks and circuits such as latches, flip flops, registers, counters, memories, A/D Converter, and D/A Converter.
• Sequential Circuits include : Sequential Card I, Sequential Card I I , Sequential Card III, Sequential Card IV, Memory card.

Microcontroller Circuits Cards Card: (EC102.04)

• Learning about the architecture of Microcontrollers and their applications along different sized-modules.

Digital Conversion Cards Code: (EC102.05)

• understand their operation and key characteristics such as reference voltage, resolution, and bandwidth. It includes constructing a Flash ADC and comparing it with SAR ADC, as well as exploring digital-to-analog conversion using Binary Weighted and R2R Ladder DACs through hands-on experiments. Students will also gain practical insight into how a String DAC works and how resistor values affect the analog signal.